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Germany | Euro Palace Casino Blog

germany | Euro Palace Casino Blog

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Always check the departure boards carefully: Germany has a world-famous network of excellent roads and Autobahnen motorways with no toll or fees for cars trucks have to pay , but gasoline prices are kept high by taxation.

Oddly, normal petrol and "super" is the same price in Germany. There are several smartphone apps for price comparison search for Spritpreis Vergleich.

As a rule of thumb the price drops over the day until around At petrol stations, you have the choice between Diesel, Benzin 91 octane, not very common , Super 95 octane , Super E10 95 octane also, but higher share of biofuel; inquire with car rental or petrol station since it might damage your car and SuperPlus 98 octane or Ultimate octane.

Also, LPG liquefied petroleum gas is available with few problems on highways. Here and there, you might find "Erdgas"; this is compressed natural gas not gasoline.

In Germany, you may first fill up your tank and pay afterwards only if the petrol station is staffed, of course.

Some stations will not release the fuel to pump unless you pay first or at least hand over a credit card in advance.

Less expensive are stations announced as "Autohof" at Autobahn exits, which are situated a kilometer or less from the exit and often also provide cheap, mostly low-quality food for professional drivers.

All German airports offer car hire services and most of the main hire firms operate at desk locations. Car hire and pool cars are also available in most cities, and one-way rentals within Germany are generally permitted with the larger chains without an additional fee.

When renting a car, be aware that most cars in Germany have manual gearbox stick-shift , so you might want to ask for a car with an automatic gearbox if you are used to that type.

Drivers with an endorsement in their licence that restricts them to driving automatic transmission vehicles will not be allowed to rent a manual-transmission car.

Most car rentals prohibit having their cars taken to eastern European countries, including Poland and the Czech Republic.

If you plan to visit these countries as well, you might chose to rent your car there, as those limitations do not apply the other way round.

Another great way to get around without your own car is using one of the popular carpool services. You can arrange many connections over their respective websites if you speak some German or have a friend that can help you out.

Making contact is free of charge and getting a lift is often the cheapest way to get around. The two most popular hosts are Mitfahrgelegenheit [28] and Mitfahrzentrale [29] , for second one you have to pay an extra charge.

If you have your own car, taking other people is also a great way of saving money and protecting the environment.

Another very good site is [30] which compares different means of transportation. All foreign licences are accepted for up to six months or 12 months for a temporary stay only , but a translation may be necessary.

If you want to continue driving after this period, you must obtain a German licence. These rules do not apply to driving licences issued in EU member states.

Very often speed limits are enforced by automated speed cameras, and it is illegal to have any "detection" device with you, which includes GPS devices which warn you about static cameras.

An exception to this is if the co-driver uses a GPS-based app blitzer warner. While fines for severe infractions can be substantial, they are usually lower than in most neighboring countries.

If you rent a car, make sure it has a Feinstaubplakette. If you travel in your own car, you can buy your badge for a small fee from vehicle registration offices, technical inspection organizations such as TÜV you can request a badge online or Dekra and many car repair shops.

German campgrounds like most others in Western Europe usually offer a full range of amenities. You always have your own electricity hookup, and water and sewer hookups for each are common,.

Every campground has restrooms and showers as well as kitchens, washing-machines and a spin dryer. It lists almost all campgrounds along with prices, type of location, size, opening hours, amenities, you-name-it.

Since the guide uses lots of symbols which are explained in a number of languages, it is suitable for travellers from abroad, too. Ride-sharing or pre-arranged hitchiking - MFZ is popular in Germany and the fare for a ride is often much cheaper than the railway fare.

There are several websites which put drivers offering to share their vehicles in touch with passengers willing to share the costs of that journey.

Popular websites are Mitfahrgelegenheit , blablacar , mitfahren. Offline agencies like Citynetz [31] or ADM [32] do have offices in major cities, mostly near the city centre or the main railway station.

These offline agencies do charge a commission to the cost for fuel you need to pay for the driver. It is possible to hitchhike in Germany and most Germans speak basic English, so you will be understood if you speak slowly.

Drivers rarely expect you to give them any money for the ride. The first letters of the German number plate before the two seals indicate the city in which the car is registered.

If you know the code for your destination [33] , it will increase your chances of stopping the right vehicle.

It is illegal to stop on the Autobahn itself, but hitchhiking from service areas or petrol stations is a good way of getting long rides km. The hard part is getting onto the Autobahn, so it pays off to sleep near the gas stations if you are going far.

At the gas stations, you can get a free booklet called Tanken und Rasten with a map of the Autobahn and its gas stations. When getting a lift, agree with the driver where to get off, and make sure there is a gas station.

Try to avoid the Autohof s. Another form of hitchhiking available in Germany is to share group tickets on regional trains. To hitch a ride with other travelers, first figure out which regional transportation you will need to take in order to reach your destination, and which group discounts are available.

Then you ask people seemingly doing nothing at the ticket machines around 20 minutes before regional trains between major stations depart, they may be willing to share a ticket with you.

Consider finding a group through the "Mitfahrzentrale" or similar services mentioned above in advance, many people list their travel plans online.

The official language of Germany is German. The standard register of German is called "Hochdeutsch" High German. This can be understood by all mother-tongue speakers of German and spoken by almost all when necessary.

However, every region has its own dialect, which might pose a challenge sometimes to those who speak even good German and even to native speakers as well.

This is usually noticeable only in the south not too much in big cities such as Stuttgart or Munich though and rural areas of the north and east. Thus, when travelling in Bavaria, Saxony and Baden, you are stepping foot in places where dialect remains a strong part of the local identity.

The general rule is that south of the Main River divides north Germany from the south in both language and local culture.

If you intend address the person you're speaking to in German, refer to the person as "Sie" if you aren't acquainted with that person yet.

All Germans learn English at school, so you should be able to get by with English in most places especially in the former West Germany. Many people--especially in the tourism industry and higher educated persons--also speak French , Russian or Spanish , but if you can't speak German, English remains your best bet.

Even if one member of the staff doesn't speak English, you are likely to find someone who does and is more than willing to help you.

In the southeastern part of that area, a small Slavic community of 50, also speak the Sorbian language, the least spoken modern Slavic language today, but widely protected from near-extinction since Also on the western coast of Germany there is a small ethnic group speaking its own language, the Frisian people.

There are also some other Frisian communities spread in the north of Lower Saxony for example in Saterland. The Frisian culture is protected by law, due to their status as minority.

If you address a German with English, always first ask "Do you speak English? Germans are less fluent in the English language and often answer questions very briefly one or two words because they feel uncertain how to create a complete English sentence.

This might sometimes appear impolite but is not at all meant this way. Germans less fluent in English also often say "become" instead of "get" because the German word "bekommen" "get" is phonetically so close to "become".

Since it's polite to reply "Bitte" if someone thanks you, Germans may literally translate this with "please" instead of "here you are" or "you're welcome".

Another source of confusion is that Germans call mobile or cellular phones a "Handy" and many of them regard this as an English word.

Germans considering themselves fluent in the English language will often offer to speak English with you if you try to speak German with them.

It's considered by most as a sign of politeness even though it might be annoying for people who want to practice German.

Pointing out that you'll want to try in German is perfectly fine and most people will react very positive or apologize if you do. It is worth noting that English is in the same language family as the German language.

Hence when you read German signs, there are a good number of words that may resemble their English counterparts. While Germany uses the 24 hour format for written times, people very often use 12 hour times in conversations.

Another difference is that when saying the time is In addition, Germans say two-digit numbers "backwards": This becomes especially important when you inquire for prices, although most who speak English with you should use the correct form.

It is still better to double-check what is really meant. When thinking of Germany, beer, lederhosen and Alpine hats quickly come to mind, but these stereotypes mostly relate to Bavarian culture and do not represent Germany as a whole.

Germany is a vast and diverse country with 16 culturally unique states that have only formed a political union since in the modern era, and including the significant parenthesis.

If you're still looking for the cliches, the Romantic Road is a famous scenic route along romantic castles and picturesque villages.

With its fairy tale appearance, the Neuschwanstein Castle could be considered the most iconic of German castles. The walled city of Rothenburg ob der Tauber has a beautiful mediaeval centre that seems untouched by the passage of time.

Similar typical German towns can be found elsewhere in the country, like Görlitz , Bamberg , Celle , Heidelberg , Erfurt , and Quedlinburg.

Your picture postcard visit to Germany will be complete with a visit to the beer halls of Munich and a peek of the Alps at Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

Germany is a modern industrial nation, and the Wirtschaftswunder is best represented by the industrial heritage of the Ruhr.

Hamburg is another economic powerhouse with the second busiest port of the continent. Frankfurt is the financial centre of Germany, and of Europe as a whole, as it is the base of the European Central Bank.

Its skyline comes close to those found at the other side of the Atlantic. The fashion city of Düsseldorf , media industry of Cologne , and car companies in Stuttgart each represent a flourishing sector of the German economic miracle.

A completely different experience can be found in Berlin , a city unlikely to be found anywhere else on the planet.

While architecturally an odd mismatch of sterilised apartment blocks, post-modernist glass and steel structures, and some historic left-overs, it has a laid-back atmosphere and a culture of internationalism that accepts everyone as a "Berliner".

If you want to see a perfect example of gentrification, visit the formally "hip", now very settled Prenzlauer Berg district. The Schöningen Spears are 8 wooden throwing spears from the Palaeolithic Age, that were found between and in the open-cast lignite mine, Schöningen , county Helmstedt , Germany, together with approx.

More than , years old they are the oldest completely preserved hunting weapons in the world and they are regarded as the first evidence of the active hunt by Homo heidelbergensis.

These discoveries have permanently changed the picture of the cultural and social development of early man. Due to its size and location in Central Europe, Germany boasts a large variety of different landscapes.

The landscape is very flat and the climate is rough with strong winds and mild, chilly temperatures. Due to the south-easterly winds that press water into the German Bight, tidal variations are exceptionally high, creating the Wadden Sea.

Vast areas of the seabed are uncovered twice a day, allowing one to walk from one of the numerous islands to another. The East Frisian Islands just off the coast are very picturesque, although mostly visited by the Germans themselves.

Favourite white sand resorts along the Baltic Sea include Rügen and Usedom. The central half of Germany is a patchwork of the Central Uplands , hilly rural areas where fields and forests intermix with larger cities.

The Rhine Valley has a very mild, amenable climate and fertile grounds, making it the country's most important area for wine and fruit growing.

While only a small part of the Alps lie in Germany, they are famous for their beauty and the unique Bavarian culture.

Along the country's southwestern border with Switzerland and Austria lies Lake Constance , Germany's largest fresh-water lake.

Germany offers virtually every activity you can imagine. Most Germans are members of a sports club and visit cultural events less often.

Due to the federal structure every region has its own specific activities. Every village has a club and the games are the main social event on weekends.

Participation is strongly encouraged. The German Football Museum in Dortmund presents the history of this. In the winter many people go skiing in the Alps in Bavaria close to Munich.

Almost every middle-size German city has a spa often called Therme with swimming pools, water slides, hot tubs, saunas, steam baths, sun roofs etc.

The sauna areas are usually visited by both genders, and people are nude there. Wearing any clothing, this including swimsuits, is considered not hygienic and is therefore not at all permitted.

Germany has world class opera houses especially Berlin , Bayreuth , and Munich and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra [35] is known as one of the top three orchestras in the world.

Germany is considered to have the strongest classical music traditions in Europe, with many famous composers such as Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Handel and Wagner originating from Germany.

Several theatres in bigger cities play outstanding classical and contemporary plays. Germany prides itself in the wide variety of cultural events and every city works out a cultural agenda.

Musicals are popular in Germany. Although there are some touring productions from time to time, most shows stay in a specific city for a few years.

Most shows belong to the company called "Stage Entertainment". Rather interestingly, William Shakespeare is adored in Germany like almost nowhere else--the Anglosphere included.

This can be attributed in large part to Goethe, who fell in love with the Bard's works. If your German is up to it or you can find a English performance, seeing a performance can be very interesting.

According to some Germans, Shakespeare is actually improved in translation, as the language used is more contemporary.

These 24 countries are: Together, these countries have a population of more than million. One euro is divided into cents.

While each official euro member as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone.

Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries. If you have Deutsche Marks no matter if coins or notes remaining from previous trips, they can still be exchanged free of charge at all branches of the german national bank Bundesbank and sometimes at other banks just ask.

The Bundesbank operates 35 branches in nearly all major cities in Germany. Do not expect anybody to accept foreign currencies or to be willing to exchange currency.

An exception are shops and restaurants at airports and also - more rarely - fast-food restaurants at major train stations. These will generally accept at least US dollars at a slightly worse exchange rate.

If you wish to exchange money, you can do so at most banks, where you can also cash in your traveller's cheques. Currency exchanges, once a common sight, have all but disappeared since the introduction of the euro.

Again, international airports and train stations are an exception to this rule. Swiss Franc can sometimes be accepted near the Swiss border.

Don't be fooled by seeing card terminals in shops or other people paying with cards - these machines may not necessarily be programmed to accept foreign cards, so it is best to inquire or look out for acceptance decals before shopping or fuelling your car all major brand gas stations will accept credit cards.

Hotels, larger retailers, chain gas stations, nationwide companies, many supermarkets and some pharmacies accept credit cards; discount stores or small independent shops tend not to with exceptions.

Some places impose a minimum purchase amount typically 5 or 10 euros for card payments. Most ATMs will allow you to withdraw money with your credit card or foreign debit card, but you'll need to know your card's PIN for that.

Unlike in some other countries, service staff are always paid by the hour albeit not always that well. A tip is therefore mainly a matter of politeness and shows your appreciation.

If you didn't appreciate the service e. The same applies when it is clear that you are on a business trip, and that you get reimbursed only for your expenses indicated on the bill, but not for tips.

Since the introduction of the Euro, a tip Trinkgeld , lit. Nonetheless, service charge is already included in an item's unit price so what you see is what you pay.

Tipping in Germany is usually done by mentioning the total while paying. If you pay by credit or debit card, it is perfectly acceptable to tip by card.

However, the slips which German credit card terminals produce do not contain any extra space for manually writing a tip and a total onto it.

Thus, indicate the total amount you want to pay, this including the tip, before staff type the total amount into the machine.

In common with most other Western European languages, the meanings of points and commas are exactly inverse to the English custom; in German a comma is used to indicate a decimal.

A dot is used to "group" numbers one dot for three digits , so "1. Fuel, sparkling wine, spirits and tobacco are subject to even higher taxes, the first of those excise taxes - the "Branntweinsteuer" spirit tax - first being imposed on Nordhäuser Branntwein the ancestor of Nordhäuser Korn in , the certainly most ridiculous of them - the sparkling wine tax - being introduced by Emperor Wilhelm II to finance the Kiel Canal and his war fleet.

Still, high street prices some of these products are still considerably lower than prices charged at "duty free stores" at airports, or even in the country of origin.

In particular, this applies to wine and whisky. Some German brands of high end goods such as kitchen utensils , stationery , and hiking gear are considerably cheaper than abroad.

VAT is always included by law in an item's price tag except when goods are sold business-to-business only by vendors which only sell to businesses, which may reimburse the VAT paid.

This usually requires you to get a certain "tax-free" certificate from the vendor participating in that scheme. Such participation is often indicated by a decal at the store entrance.

You may not use the item you had bought within the EU before departing. You would have to present the merchandise together with the certificates to customs at the place e.

You will not be harrassed by customs, but expect them to ask for some reasonable proof that you are about to export unused goods which are identical to the ones indicated on the certificates.

Thus, officers might demand physical presentation of the merchandise, to check whether it shows signs of use. It helps to leave price tags on clothing, and not to remove any seals from electronic equipment packaging.

Some proof of identity passport and of your residence outside the EU may also be demanded. If customs are satisfied that you fulfill the criteria, they will endorse your "tax-free" certificates with an export certificate stamp, and you can then follow instructions on the documents, telling how to send in the certificates and how to get the VAT transferred.

Besides this certificate-based procedure, there also do exist other procedures to reimburse the VAT, but those are more complicated.

Many Germans rather look for prices and do not like getting "ripped off" when shopping for food. As a result, the competition between food discounters which might be the cause of this very specific behaviour is exceptionally fierce in fact, WalMart had to withdraw from the German market because it failed at competing on price and results in very low food prices compared to other European countries.

The chains "Aldi", "Lidl", "Penny" and "Netto" are a special type of supermarket sometimes called "Discounter", but generally referred to as "Supermarkt", as well: Their range of products is limited to the necessities of daily life like vegetables, pasta, milk, eggs, convenience foods, toiletries etc.

While quality is generally surprisingly high, do not expect delicatessen or local specialities when you go to shop there.

Don't blame discounter personnel for being somewhat harsh; although they are paid slightly better than usual, they have to cope with a rather grim working atmosphere and a significantly higher workload than colleagues in "standard" supermarkets and therefore are certainly not amused about being disturbed in getting their work done.

Beside those major chains, Turkish supermarkets which can be found in townships with predominantly Turkish population can be a worthwhile alternative since they combine the characteristics of discounters low price levels but limited assortment with those of "standard" supermarkets Turkish specialties and usually friendly personnel.

Deposit for beverage containers: Germany has an elaborate and confusing beverage container deposit " Pfand " system. Bottles usually cost between 8 and 25 cents Pfand per bottle depending on their type.

Additional Pfand is due for special carrying baskets matching the bottle measures. The Pfand can be cashed in at any store which sells the type of container you wish to return, often by means of a high-tech bottle reader than spins the bottle, reads the Pfand , and issues a ticket redeemable with the cashier.

Pfand is also usually declared on the price tag of the product. Some contents like wine or drinks not containing carbonic acid do not have to be sold with Pfand.

They may or may not have a label saying pfandfrei deposit-free on them. Reusable bottles are always sold with Pfand because the bottler wants you to bring the bottle back for refilling.

Reusable bottles are taken back, cleaned thoroughly and refilled up to 50 times. The label with the logo on it must remain on the bottle to reclaim your Pfand.

A reusable container that requires Pfand does not always explicitly state that. Instead it may have one of these logos or just read "Mehrwegflasche" reusable bottle or "Mehrweg-Pfandflasche" reusable deposit bottle on it.

Reusable containers are recognized by other means which means the label does not have to stay on the container.

There are also a few other instances where Pfand is due, for example for standardized gas containers. Pfand on glasses, bottles and crockery is also common at discotheques, self-service bars or public events, but usually not at a students' cafeteria.

If you have a container you paid Pfand for and are not planning on taking it back, be a nice person and place it beside a waste bin so someone can take it and bring it back.

Cigarette machines are often dotted around towns and cities be aware you will need an EU driving licence or a debit card with an electronic chip to "unlock" the machine; in restaurants you may ask the waiter for a identification card.

The legal age to buy tobacco and smoke publicly in Germany is Some Germans buy paper and tobacco separately as this is significantly cheaper. Due to a federal reform, opening hours are set by the states, therefore opening hours vary from state to state.

Most states have no more strict opening hours from Monday to Saturday however, you will rarely find 24 hours shops other than at petrol stations the only exceptions are Saarland and Bavaria where stores are only allowed to open and Sachsen Sunday and national holidays is normally closed for shops everywhere in Germany, including pharmacies.

However single pharmacies remain open for emergencies every pharmacy will have a sign telling you which pharmacy is currently open for emergencies.

Information can be obtained here [36]. Shops are allowed to open on Sundays on special occasions called "Verkaufsoffener Sonntag", information on open Sundays may be found here [37] or here [38].

Every German city uses these days except Munich. Small shops are often closed If necessary in many big cities you will find a few sometimes more expensive supermarkets with longer opening hours often near the main station.

Bakeries usually offer service on Sunday mornings business hours vary as well. Also most petrol stations have a small shopping area.

In some parts of Germany like Berlin , Cologne , Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area there are cornershops called "Späti" oder "Spätkauf" "latey" , "Kiosk", "Trinkhalle" drinking hall or "Büdchen" little hut that offer newspapers, drinks and at least basic food supplies.

Basic supplies can usually be bought around the clock at gas stations. Gas station owners work around opening hour restrictions by running 7-Eleven style mini marts on their gas station property.

Be aware that prices are usually quite high. Another exception to this law are supermarkets located in touristy areas. Towns designated as a Kurort health resort are allowed to have their stores open all week during tourist season.

Just ask a local for those well-kept secret stores. In some larger cities such as Leipzig and Frankfurt , this can include an entire shopping mall that happens to be attached to the train station.

German food usually sticks to its roots and a typical dish will consist of meat with some form of potatoes and gravy, accompanied by vegetables or salad.

Modern German cuisine has been influenced by other European countries such as Italy and France to become lighter. Dishes show a great local diversity which is interesting to discover.

Starting from the lower end, these are:. Sausages will include Bratwurst, which is fried and usually a boiled pork sausage.

A very German variant is Currywurst: Beer and often even spirits are available in most Schnellimbisse. Even though considered Turkish, it's actually a speciality which originated in Germany.

According to legend, it was invented by Turkish immigrants in West Berlin during the s. In fact, the 'Döner' is Germany's most loved fast food.

Nordsee is a German seafood chain, which offers 'Rollmops' pickled herrings and many other fish and seafood snacks. However, many independent seafood snack-bars most common along the German coasts offer slightly better and slightly cheaper seafood.

Even the smallest bakeries will sell many sorts of bread or rolls, most of them darker for example, using wholemeal or rye flour than the white bread popular around the world and definitely worth a try.

Even if they don't already have it prepared, almost all butchers will prepare a sandwich for you if you ask. Some butchers even prepare meals for you.

This butcher 'imbiss' is mainly popular in southern Germany, and the quality and freshness of food is usually high.

Here you will get the obvious drink. In traditional beergardens in Bavaria , it is possible to bring your own food if you buy drinks, while in the northern parts of Germany, this behaviour would be considered inappropriate, so you had better courtously ask the waiter for the specific place's policy.

Most places will offer simple meals. A very good place for beer and Bavarian food is the Biergarten of "Kloster Andechs" close to the Ammersee round 40km southwest of Munich take the Autobahn to the west A96 or the S-Bahn.

Smaller breweries sell their products straight to the customer and sometimes you will find food there as well, among it usually "Haxe" or "Schweinshaxe" pig's leg , a distinctively German specialty and probably the best dish in almost every establishment of that sort.

In Frankonia, this is replaced by "Schäuferla" in different spellings. In other parts of Germany, you might find different traditional dishes being served, as, for example, in Cologne, where "Halve Hahn" a rye roll with cheese is considered typical.

Be aware of local customs: Increasingly, new breweries, offering innovative beers, are opening in Germany, where you may order dishes which are down-to-earth and innovative at the same time.

In some traditional breweries, and in pubs in the western part of Germany, your consumption is usually recorded on your beer mat, which is a small round piece of cardboard which is placed below your beer glass.

And this leads to something which may be considered typically German: This pragmatic recording approach is supported by the legal order. Any manipulation of those records on beer mats, or the suppression of such beer mats, is considered "forgery of documents", or "elimination of documents", both being criminal offences.

The fact that beer mats are associated with legal documents even got reflected in a campaign of a German politician, demanding that tax returns should be so easy that "every citizen should be in a position to file the return on a beer mat".

They are mainly family-run businesses that have been owned for generations, comparable to pubs in the UK. You can go there simply for a drink, or to try German food often with a local flavour.

Food is usually down-to-earth and may range from very basic dishes to local specialities. Except from very simple places that try to feed people off with reheated convenience products, the quality of the food can be very good.

If you spot a place that appears popular with the locals, it's usually worth giving it a try. When locals who appear to be quite well-off indicate a certain place and state that prices are appropriate, you should definitely give a try to such place: In formerly rural areas which are quite near to larger cities and which have turned into quite wealthy suburban spaces, formerly simple rural pubs have adopted to a quite wealthy, albeit price-aware and critical, new clientele.

They might offer surprisingly elaborate food, a large variety of beverages, in particular selected wines, and food which conforms with specific dietary requirements.

Usually, they do not need to advertise much, but rather rely on recommendations. And they know that their clientele knows the German proverb: You have to pay some price for good quality of food and beverages, but not for more.

Expect such places in particular around cities like Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, Munich, or Hamburg. Especially in more rural areas, a traditional Gasthof may not cater for all dietary requirements e.

In that case, check the menu before entering. Germany has a wide range of flavors e. Most cities will also have speciality restaurants that cater for various dietary requirements.

Berlin in particular offers a lot of vegan and vegetarian options. Outside of the bigger cities, the situation may be more difficult but most restaurants will try to accomodate you and list at least some vegetarian options.

Food at Turkish and Arab eateries will usually be halal, and most of the time they will also have vegetarian options. Kosher restaurants are rare and will only be found in cities with a notable Jewish population, like Berlin.

In most restaurants in Germany you can choose your own table. You can make reservations recommended for larger groups and haute cuisine on Saturday nights and these are marked by reservation cards "Reserviert".

In some more expensive restaurants in larger cities you should have reservation and will be seated by the staff - in simpler restaurants you'll just pick a table and sit down.

Restaurants in commercial areas often offer weekday lunch specials. Specials tend to rotate on a daily or weekly basis, especially when fresh ingredients like fish are involved.

Some restaurants offer all-you-can-eat-buffets where you pay around 10 euros and can eat as much as you want.

Drinks are not included in this price. If you cannot finish your meal, you can ask whether it is possible to wrap your leftovers for taking them home.

Most restaurant staff are happy about this request, as it indicates that you indeed liked the food and simply could not finish.

Legally, you bought the food served, are the owner of it, and are allowed to take it home, but the restaurant is not required to wrap it.

As they will be happy to wrap it for you without formal surcharge, and as they will be providing you with a bag for comfortably taking it home, consider to add an additional euro to the tip for that service as a gesture of appreciation.

These restaurants offer mostly standardized meat dishes like Schnitzel or Bratwurst in big to inhumane sizes.

It is common and encouraged to take leftover food home. Although such food will usually not contain any preservatives or other additives as the turnaround is high , do not expect the food or the customers of such restaurants to be very healthy.

At very formal events and in high-end restaurants, a few deviations of German customs from western standards should be noted:. Rinderroulade mit Rotkraut und Knödeln: Very thin sliced beef rolled around a piece of bacon and pickled cucumber until it looks like a mini barrel 5cm diameter flavoured with tiny pieces of onion, German mustard, ground black pepper and salt.

The meat is quick-fried and is then left to cook slowly for an hour, meanwhile red cabbage and potato dumplings are prepared and then the meat is removed from the frying pan and gravy is prepared in the frying pan.

Knödel, Rotkraut and Rouladen are served together with the gravy in one dish. Schnitzel mit Pommes frites: They have in common a thin slice of pork often covered in egg and bread crumbs that is fried for a short period of time and it is often served with fries that's the Pommes frites part.

Variations of this are usually served with different types of gravy: In the south you can often get Spätzle pasta that Swabia is famous for instead of fries with it.

Spätzle are egg noodles typical of south Germany — most restaurants make them fresh. Due to the easiness of its preparation ordering it might be perceived as an insult to any business with a decent reputation with the exception of Wiener Schnitzel perhaps , admittedly it is almost unavoidable to spot it on the menu of any German sleazy joint and there were — and still are — so many that even Churchill's bombs couldn't hit 'em all In and around these areas you can enjoy the best game in Germany.

Rehrücken means venison tenderloin and it is often served with freshly made noodles such as Spätzle and a very nice gravy based on a dry red wine.

Here is the shortlist version: If you spot a sausage on a menu this is often a good and sometimes the only choice.

Often served with mashed potato, fries or potato salad. The most popular type of sausage probably is the Currywurst Bratwurst cut into slices and served with ketchup and curry and can be bought almost everywhere.

Roast pork, tradidtional the closer you get to or into Munich. Try the crust, which should be crispy. There sould be little visible but tastible fat.

If you pass through Nuremberg, try Schäufele , the local variant of pork shoulder in a restaurant that has it on the daily not the regular menu.

Literally "meatballs from Königsberg", this is a typical dish in and around Berlin. The meatballs are made out of minced pork and anchovies and are cooked and served in a white sauce with capers and rice or potatoes.

Starting from the north of Germany going south you will find a tremendous variety of food and each region sticks to it origins.

Labskaus although strictly speaking not a German invention is a dish from the north and the opinions about this dish are divided, some love it, others hate it.

The north is also famous for its lamb dishes , the best type of lamb probably being "Rudenlamm" lamb from Ruden, a small island in the Baltic Sea; only a few restaurants in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania serve this , the second best type being "Salzwiesenlamm" salt meadow lamb.

The Lueneburger Heide Lueneburg Heath is famous not only for its heath but also for its Heidschnucken, a special breed of sheep.

Be aware that a lot of restaurants import their lamb from New Zealand though because it is cheaper.

Crabs and mussels are also quite common along the German coasts, especially in North Frisia. A speciality of Hamburg is "Aalsuppe" which - despite the name in this case "Aal" means "everything", not "eel" - originally contained almost everything - except eel today many restaurants include eel within this soup, because the name led tourists into confusion.

At the coast there's a variety of fish dishes. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that, for eating fish, you visit specialised or quality restaurants only.

A fast-food style restaurant chain serving standardized quality fish and other seafood at low prices all over Germany is "Nordsee", though you will rarely find authentic specialties there.

Literally this is pig stomach filled with a mash of potato and meat, cooked for hours and then cut in thick slices often served with sauerkraut. Swabia is famous for Spätzle a kind of noodle , "Maultaschen" noodles stuffed with spinach and mince meat, but lots of variations, even veggie ones, exist.

The south is also famous for its nice tarts such as the "Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte" tart with lots of cream and spirit made from cherries. A delicacy in Saxony is Eierschecke , a cake made of eggs and cream similar to cheese cake.

A specialty of the East is "Soljanka" originating from Ukraine, but probably the most common dish in the GDR , a sour soup containing vegetables and usually some kind of meat or sausages.

Many vegetables can be found all year round and are often imported from far away. Whereas asparagus can be found for only 2 months and is best enjoyed fresh after harvest, it stays nice for a couple of hours or until next day.

The asparagus is treated very carefully and it is harvested before it is ever exposed to daylight, therefore it remains white. When exposed to daylight it changes its colour to green and might taste bitter.

Therefore, white asparagus is considered to be better by most Germans. The standard asparagus meal is the asparagus stalks, hollandaise sauce, boiled potatoes, and some form of meat.

The most common meat is ham, preferably smoked; however you will also find it teamed with schnitzel fried breaded pork , turkey, beef, or whatever is available in the kitchen.

White asparagus soup is one of the hundreds of different recipes that can be found with white asparagus. Often it is made with cream and contains some of the thinner asparagus pieces.

Another example of a seasonal speciality is "Grünkohl" kale. You can find that mainly in Lower Saxony, particularly around Oldenburg and the "Ammerland", Bremen, as well as the southern and south-western parts such as the "Emsland" or around the "Wiehengebirge" and the "Teutoburger Wald", but also everywhere else there and in the eastern parts of North-Rhine-Westphalia.

It is usually served with a boiled rough sort of sausage called "Pinkel" around Oldenburg and roasted potatoes. If you are travelling in Lower-Saxony in fall, you should get it in every "Gasthaus".

Usually the first "Grünkohl" is harvested after the first frost in autumn and is on the menu from November until March. Lebkuchen are some of Germany's many nice Christmas biscuits and gingerbread.

The best known are produced in and around Nuremberg. Stollen is a kind of cake eaten during the Advent season and Yuletide. Original Stollen is produced only in Dresden , Saxony , however you can buy Stollen everywhere in Germany although Dresdner Stollen is reputed to be the best and - due to the lower salaries in Eastern Germany - comparatively cheap.

Germans are very fond of their bread , which they make in many variations. This is the food that Germans tend to miss most when away from home.

Most people like their bread relatively dark and dense and scorn the soft loaves sold in other countries. Bakeries will rarely provide less than twenty different sorts of bread and it's worth trying a few of them.

In fact, many Germans buy their lunch or small snacks in bakeries instead of takeaways or the like. Prices for a loaf of bread will range from 0.

In bakeries it is possible and even common to buy half or even quarter of a loaf. Most restaurants have one or two vegetarian dishes, but there aren't many places which are particularly aimed at vegetarian or vegan customers, except a few places in big cities like Berlin.

If the menu does not contain vegetarian dishes, do not hesitate to ask. Vegetarian restaurant guides can be found at [39] german or [40] VEBU restaurant list, the restaurants are not necessarily vegetarian in general.

Be aware when ordering to ask whether the dish is suitable for vegetarians, as chicken stock and bacon cubes are a commonly "undeclared" ingredient on German menus.

However, there are usually organic food shops "Bioladen", "Naturkostladen" or "Reformhaus" in every city, providing veg etari an bread, spreads, cheese, ice cream, vegan milk substitutes, tofu and seitan.

The diversity and quality of the products is great and you will find shop assistants that can answer special nutritional questions in great depth.

Veganism and vegetarianism is on the rise in Germany so that many supermarkets such as Edeka and Rewe have a small selection of vegan products as well in their "Feinkost"-section such as seitan-sausages, tofu or soy milk at a reasonable price.

When shopping for foods, the package labeling in Germany is generally reliable. All food products must be properly labeled including additives and preservatives.

Be on the look out for "Weizen" wheat , "Mehl" flour or "Malz" malt and "Stärke" starch. Be extra cautious for foods with "Geschmacksverstärker" i.

The German federal-states started banning smoking in public places and areas in early , however the laws vary from state to state.

Smoking is generally banned in all restaurants and cafes. Some places may provide separate smoking areas but it is best to enquire when booking.

Smokers should be prepared to step outside if they want to light up. Smoking is banned on all forms of public transport including on railway platforms except in designated smoking areas, which are clearly marked with the word "Raucherbereich" [smoking area].

The laws are strictly enforced, although when found smoking in a non-smoking area for the first time you will usually not get fined but just reminded not to smoke there.

The german smoking ban does not apply on electronic cigarettes as was decided by the upper administrative court Oberverwaltungsgericht of North Rhine-Westphalia in Therefore pubs and restaurants may allow their guests to use e-cigarettes.

It is advisable to ask wether it is permitted or not. Electronic cigarettes may not be used in public transportation, at railway stations and airports outside smoking areas.

However, this ban is not by law but by the house rule of the transportation company or the airport. Legal drinking age is 18 for spirits drinks containing distilled alcohol and 16 for everything else e.

Drinking in public is generally legal and accepted as long as you still know how to behave. Consuming alcoholic drinks might be prohibited in some local public transports.

Sometimes the restriction only mentions "excessive" drinking. Violations are always considered a civil and not criminal matter.

For centuries, beer-making in Bavaria has been governed by the Reinheitsgebot purity law that was made national policy with the unification of Germany in , which states that German beer may be made only from hops, malt, yeast and water.

The Reinheitsgebot has come down with the European integration, but German breweries still have to stick to it since for them, national law applies.

The domestic beer market is not dominated by one or a only a few big breweries. Even though there are some big players, the regional diversity is enormous, and there are over breweries with most of them serving only local markets.

Usually bars and restaurants serve the local varieties that differ from town to town. When sitting in a German Kneipe , a local beer is always an option, and often the only option.

Specialities include Weizenbier or Weissbier in Bavaria , a refreshing top-fermented beer which is popular in the south, Alt , a kind of dark ale that is especially popular in and around Düsseldorf , and Kölsch , a special beer brewed in Cologne.

There are also seasonal beers, which are made only at different times of the year such as Bockbier in winter and Maibock in May, both containing a greater quantity of alcohol, sometimes double that of a normal Vollbier.

If you simply order a beer, it will typically be a Pilsener. Beer is usually served in or ml glasses in the northern part or ml in the South.

Except for in Irish pubs, pints or pitchers are uncommon. For Germans, a lot of foam is both a sign of freshness and quality; thus, beer is always served with a lot of head.

All glasses have volume marks for the critical souls. Additionally, Germans are not afraid to mix beer with other drinks though the older generation may disagree.

Beer is commonly mixed with carbonated lemonade usually at 1: Pils mixed witch Cola is very popular especially amongst younger Germans and goes different names - depending on your area - such as "Diesel", "Schmutziges" dirty or "Schweinebier" pigs beer to name a few.

These beer-based mixed drinks are widespread popular and can be bought as pre-mixed bottles typically in six packs wherever regular beer is sold.

Pubs are open in Germany until 2 in the morning or later. Food is generally available until midnight. Germans typically go out after 8PM popular places already fill up at 6PM.

The American English word "stein", used for a large mug, is unknown in Germany, which might be surprising for many tourists.

In German language, the word means "stone" and does not at all relate to any vessel. Except in places where many American tourists are present, staff might not understand any order for a "stein" of beer, as the word is usually not being taught in English lessons at German schools.

Undisputed capital of "Apfelwein" cider in Germany is Frankfurt. Locals love their cider and it is very popular around there.

There are even special bars "Apfelweinkneipe" that will serve only "Apfelwein" and some gastronomic specialities.

Cider is often served in a special jug called "Bembel". The taste is slightly different from Ciders in other countries and tends to be quite refreshing.

That is the first product in the chain of "Apfelwein" production; one glass of it is nice, but after two or three glasses you will have a problem unless you enjoy spending lots of time on the toilet.

In the Saarland and surrounding regions "Apfelwein" is called "Viez". The Viez capital of that region is Merzig. During winter it is also quite common to drink hot cider along with some cloves and sugar as a prophylactic measure against an upcoming cold.

The real national drink of Germany is not beer. Good beer is also made in many other countries ask the Czechs, the Brits, the Belgians, the Dutch, etc The true national drink is "Apfelschorle" - a fact that even some Germans may only realize as soon as they leave their country and just can't find their everyday drink abroad.

You get it everywhere in Germany plus Austria and Switzerland but nowhere else. The number of abortions declined from 35, per year at the start of the s to fewer than 2, per year at the end of the decade, though in a law was passed allowing abortions for eugenics reasons.

Nazi Germany had a strong anti-tobacco movement as pioneering research by Franz H. Müller in demonstrated a causal link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.

Government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients.

In , Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients and in their right to practice medicine was removed entirely.

Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific , were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in Josef Mengele , camp doctor at Auschwitz.

Nazi society had elements supportive of animal rights and many people were fond of zoos and wildlife. In , the Nazis enacted a stringent animal-protection law that affected what was allowed for medical research.

The Reich Forestry Office under Göring enforced regulations that required foresters to plant a wide variety of trees to ensure suitable habitat for wildlife and a new Reich Animal Protection Act became law in When the Nazis seized power in , roughly 67 percent of the population of Germany was Protestant , 33 percent was Roman Catholic , while Jews made up less than 1 percent.

Under the Gleichschaltung process, Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant state churches , [] with the ultimate goal of eradication of the churches in Germany.

Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.

Pope Pius XI had the " Mit brennender Sorge " "With Burning Concern" encyclical smuggled into Germany for Passion Sunday and read from every pulpit as it denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.

Enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply and by all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities.

He planned the "extermination of the foreign Christian faiths imported into Germany", and for the Bible and Christian cross to be replaced in all churches, cathedrals, and chapels with copies of Mein Kampf and the swastika.

While no unified resistance movement opposing the Nazi regime existed, acts of defiance such as sabotage and labour slowdowns took place, as well as attempts to overthrow the regime or assassinate Hitler.

These networks achieved little beyond fomenting unrest and initiating short-lived strikes. The group was detected by the Gestapo and more than 50 members were tried and executed in The two groups saw themselves as potential rival parties in post-war Germany, and for the most part did not co-ordinate their activities.

While civilian efforts had an impact on public opinion, the army was the only organisation with the capacity to overthrow the government. They believed Britain would go to war over Hitler's planned invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Germany would lose.

The plan was to overthrow Hitler or possibly assassinate him. The planned coup was cancelled after the signing of the Munich Agreement in September Several more attempts followed before the failed 20 July plot, which was at least partly motivated by the increasing prospect of a German defeat in the war.

Evans , The Coming of the Third Reich The regime promoted the concept of Volksgemeinschaft , a national German ethnic community.

The goal was to build a classless society based on racial purity and the perceived need to prepare for warfare, conquest and a struggle against Marxism.

As well as taking control of tens of thousands of privately run recreational clubs, it offered highly regimented holidays and entertainment such as cruises, vacation destinations and concerts.

Sub-chambers were set up to control aspects of cultural life such as film, radio, newspapers, fine arts, music, theatre and literature. Members of these professions were required to join their respective organisation.

Jews and people considered politically unreliable were prevented from working in the arts, and many emigrated. Books and scripts had to be approved by the Propaganda Ministry prior to publication.

Standards deteriorated as the regime sought to use cultural outlets exclusively as propaganda media. Radio became popular in Germany during the s; over 70 percent of households owned a receiver by , more than any other country.

By July , radio station staffs were purged of leftists and others deemed undesirable. Newspapers, like other media, were controlled by the state; the Reich Press Chamber shut down or bought newspapers and publishing houses.

By , over two thirds of the newspapers and magazines were directly owned by the Propaganda Ministry. Under Goebbels, the Propaganda Ministry issued two dozen directives every week on exactly what news should be published and what angles to use; the typical newspaper followed the directives closely, especially regarding what to omit.

Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile. Goebbels recommended that the remaining authors concentrate on books themed on Germanic myths and the concept of blood and soil.

By the end of , over a thousand books—most of them by Jewish authors or featuring Jewish characters—had been banned by the Nazi regime.

Pacifist works, and literature espousing liberal, democratic values were targeted for destruction, as well as any writings supporting the Weimar Republic or those written by Jewish authors.

Hitler took a personal interest in architecture and worked closely with state architects Paul Troost and Albert Speer to create public buildings in a neoclassical style based on Roman architecture.

Neither structure was built. Hitler's belief that abstract , Dadaist , expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy.

The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors. Movies were popular in Germany in the s and s, with admissions of over a billion people in , and Exports of German films plummeted, as their antisemitic content made them impossible to show in other countries.

The two largest film companies, Universum Film AG and Tobis , were purchased by the Propaganda Ministry, which by was producing most German films.

The productions were not always overtly propagandistic, but generally had a political subtext and followed party lines regarding themes and content.

Leni Riefenstahl 's Triumph of the Will —documenting the Nuremberg Rally—and Olympia —covering the Summer Olympics —pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that influenced later films.

New techniques such as telephoto lenses and cameras mounted on tracks were employed. Both films remain controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of National Socialist ideals.

The Allied powers organised war crimes trials, beginning with the Nuremberg trials , held from November to October , of 23 top Nazi officials.

They were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity —in violation of international laws governing warfare.

The result was convictions of 1, people; of these were sentenced to death and to life in prison, with the remainder receiving lesser sentences.

About 65 percent of the death sentences were carried out. The political programme espoused by Hitler and the NSDAP brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Europe.

Germany itself suffered wholesale destruction, characterised as Stunde Null Zero Hour. While Evans remarks that the era "exerts an almost universal appeal because its murderous racism stands as a warning to the whole of humanity", [] young neo-Nazis enjoy the shock value the use Nazi symbols or slogans provides.

The process of denazification, which was initiated by the Allies as a way to remove Nazi Party members was only partially successful, as the need for experts in such fields as medicine and engineering was too great.

However, expression of Nazi views was frowned upon, and those who expressed such views were frequently dismissed from their jobs.

While virtually every family suffered losses during the war has a story to tell, Germans kept quiet about their experiences and felt a sense of communal guilt, even if they were not directly involved in war crimes.

The trial of Adolf Eichmann in and the broadcast of the television miniseries Holocaust in brought the process of Vergangenheitsbewältigung coping with the past to the forefront for many Germans.

Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see Das Dritte Reich. Administrative divisions of Germany, January The German state from to , under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler.

Adolf Hitler's rise to power. Anschluss and German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Mass suicides in Nazi Germany.

Territorial evolution of Germany. Government of Nazi Germany. Law in Nazi Germany. Economy of Nazi Germany. Nazism and race , Racial policy of Nazi Germany , and Nazi eugenics.

Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany. Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war.

University education in Nazi Germany. Women in Nazi Germany. Animal welfare in Nazi Germany. Religion in Nazi Germany. German resistance to Nazism.

If the experience of the Third Reich teaches us anything, it is that a love of great music, great art and great literature does not provide people with any kind of moral or political immunization against violence, atrocity, or subservience to dictatorship.

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Links to related articles. States of Nazi Germany. Adriatic Littoral Alpine Foothills.

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In August , civil servants and members of the military were required to swear an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler. These laws became the basis of the Führerprinzip , the concept that Hitler's word overrode all existing laws.

Most of the judicial system and legal codes of the Weimar Republic remained in use during and after the Nazi era to deal with non-political crimes.

Thousands were arrested and confined indefinitely without trial. A new type of court, the Volksgerichtshof People's Court , was established in to deal with political cases.

The Nazis used propaganda to promulgate the concept of Rassenschande "race defilement" to justify the need for such laws.

These laws initially prohibited sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews and were later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring".

The wording of the law also permitted the Nazis to deny citizenship to anyone who was not supportive enough of the regime.

The unified armed forces of Germany from to were called the Wehrmacht defence force. This included the Heer army , Kriegsmarine navy , and the Luftwaffe air force.

From 2 August , members of the armed forces were required to pledge an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler personally. In contrast to the previous oath, which required allegiance to the constitution of the country and its lawful establishments, this new oath required members of the military to obey Hitler even if they were being ordered to do something illegal.

In spite of efforts to prepare the country militarily, the economy could not sustain a lengthy war of attrition.

A strategy was developed based on the tactic of Blitzkrieg "lightning war" , which involved using quick coordinated assaults that avoided enemy strong points.

Attacks began with artillery bombardment, followed by bombing and strafing runs. Next the tanks would attack and finally the infantry would move in to secure the captured area.

The decision to attack the Soviet Union and the decisive defeat at Stalingrad led to the retreat of the German armies and the eventual loss of the war.

Röhm hoped to assume command of the army and absorb it into the ranks of the SA. After the purge of , the SA was no longer a major force.

Initially a small bodyguard unit under the auspices of the SA, the Schutzstaffel SS; Protection Squadron grew to become one of the largest and most powerful groups in Nazi Germany.

It never obtained total "independence of command" and was dependent on the army for heavy weaponry and equipment. With recruitment and conscription based only on expansion, by the Waffen-SS could not longer claim to be an elite fighting force.

This holding company owned housing corporations, factories, and publishing houses. The most pressing economic matter the Nazis initially faced was the 30 percent national unemployment rate.

Hjalmar Schacht , President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics, created a scheme for deficit financing in May Capital projects were paid for with the issuance of promissory notes called Mefo bills.

When the notes were presented for payment, the Reichsbank printed money. Hitler and his economic team expected that the upcoming territorial expansion would provide the means of repaying the soaring national debt.

In October , the Junkers Aircraft Works was expropriated. In concert with other aircraft manufacturers and under the direction of Aviation Minister Göring, production was ramped up industry-wide.

From a workforce of 3, people producing units per year in , the industry grew to employ a quarter of a million workers manufacturing over 10, technically advanced aircraft annually less than ten years later.

An elaborate bureaucracy was created to regulate imports of raw materials and finished goods with the intention of eliminating foreign competition in the German marketplace and improving the nation's balance of payments.

The Nazis encouraged the development of synthetic replacements for materials such as oil and textiles. Any profits in excess of that amount would be turned over to the Reich.

By , Farben regretted making the deal, as the excess profits by then being generated had to be given to the government.

Major public works projects financed with deficit spending included the construction of a network of Autobahnen and providing funding for programmes initiated by the previous government for housing and agricultural improvements.

Envisioning widespread car ownership as part of the new Germany, Hitler arranged for designer Ferdinand Porsche to draw up plans for the KdF-wagen Strength Through Joy car , intended to be an automobile that everyone could afford.

With the outbreak of World War II, the factory was converted to produce military vehicles. None were sold until after the war, when the vehicle was renamed the Volkswagen people's car.

Six million people were unemployed when the Nazis took power in and by there were fewer than a million. By early , the focus shifted from funding work creation schemes towards rearmament.

By , military expenditures accounted for 73 percent of the government's purchases of goods and services. The Nazi war economy was a mixed economy that combined a free market with central planning.

Historian Richard Overy described it as being somewhere in between the command economy of the Soviet Union and the capitalist system of the United States.

Germany imported and enslaved some 12 million people from 20 European countries to work in factories and on farms. Approximately 75 percent were Eastern European.

Poor living conditions led to high rates of sickness, injury and death, as well as sabotage and criminal activity. Foreign workers brought into Germany were put into four different classifications: Each group was subject to different regulations.

In addition, the Nazis issued a ban on sexual relations between Germans and foreign workers. By over a half million women served as auxiliaries in the German armed forces.

They also took over jobs formerly held by men, especially on farms and in family-owned shops. Very heavy strategic bombing by the Allies targeted refineries producing synthetic oil and gasoline , as well as the German transportation system, especially rail yards and canals.

By November, fuel coal was no longer reaching its destinations and the production of new armaments was no longer possible.

During the course of the war, the Nazis extracted considerable amounts of plunder from occupied Europe. Historian and war correspondent William L. By February , the Reichsfinanzministerium Ministry of Finance had calculated that 48 billion Reichsmarks had been paid to Germany.

By the end of the war, occupation costs were calculated by the Nazis to number 60 billion Reichsmarks, with France alone paying The Bank of France was also forced to provide 4.

The Nazis exploited other conquered nations in a similar way. After the war, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey concluded Germany had obtained billion Reichsmarks in the form of occupation costs and other wealth transfers from occupied Europe, including two-thirds of the gross domestic product of Belgium and the Netherlands.

Nazi plunder included private and public art collections, artefacts, precious metals, books, and personal possessions.

Hitler and Göring in particular were interested in acquiring looted art treasures from occupied Europe, [] the former planning to use the stolen art to fill the galleries of the planned Führermuseum Leader's Museum , [] and the latter for his personal collection.

Göring, having stripped almost all of occupied Poland of its artworks within six months of Germany's invasion, ultimately grew a collection valued at over 50 million Reichsmarks.

France saw the greatest extent of Nazi plunder. Some 26, railroad cars of art treasures, furniture, and other looted items were sent to Germany from France.

Goods and raw materials were also taken. In France, an estimated 9,, tonnes 8,, long tons; 9,, short tons of cereals were seized during the course of the war.

The valuation of this loot is estimated to be In Poland, Nazi plunder of raw materials began even before the German invasion had concluded.

The Poles shall be the slaves of the Greater German Reich. Following Operation Barbarossa, the Soviet Union was also plundered.

In alone, 9,, tons of cereals, 2,, tonnes 2,, long tons; 2,, short tons of fodder, 3,, tonnes 3,, long tons; 3,, short tons of potatoes, and , tonnes , long tons; , short tons of meats were sent back to Germany.

During the course of Germany's occupation of Soviet territory, some 12 million pigs and 13 million sheep had been taken.

The total value of this plunder is estimated at 4 billion Reichsmarks. This relatively low number in comparison to the occupied nations of Western Europe can be attributed to the devastating fighting on the Eastern Front.

Nazi Germany's racial policy was based on their belief in the existence of a superior master race. The Nazis postulated the existence of a racial conflict between the Aryan master race and inferior races, particularly Jews, who were viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated society and were responsible for the exploitation and repression of the Aryan race.

Discrimination against Jews began immediately after the seizure of power. Following a month-long series of attacks by members of the SA on Jewish businesses and synagogues, on 1 April Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses.

The regime used violence and economic pressure to encourage Jews to voluntarily leave the country. Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks.

In November a young Jewish man requested an interview with the German ambassador in Paris and met with a legation secretary, whom he shot and killed to protest his family's treatment in Germany.

Members of the SA damaged or destroyed synagogues and Jewish property throughout Germany. The Jewish community was fined one billion marks to pay for the damage caused by Kristallnacht and told that any insurance settlements would be confiscated.

Emigrants to Palestine were allowed to transfer property there under the terms of the Haavara Agreement , but those moving to other countries had to leave virtually all their property behind, and it was seized by the government.

Like the Jews, the Romani or Gypsy people were subjected to persecution from the early days of the regime.

The Romani were forbidden to marry people of German extraction. They were also shipped to concentration camps starting in and killed in large numbers.

The Nazis intended on deporting all Romani people from Germany, and confined them to Zigeunerlager Gypsy camps for this purpose.

Himmler ordered their deportation from Germany in December , with few exceptions. A total of 23, Romani were deported to Auschwitz concentration camp , of whom 19, died.

Outside of Germany, the Romani people were regularly used for forced labour, though many were killed. In occupied Serbia , 1, to 12, Romani were killed, while nearly all 25, Romani living in the Independent State of Croatia were killed.

The estimates at end of the war put the total death toll at around ,, which equalled approximately 25 percent of the Romani population in Europe.

Action T4 was a programme of systematic murder of the physically and mentally handicapped and patients in psychiatric hospitals that took place mainly from to , and continued until the end of the war.

Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen and others; gas chambers and gas vans using carbon monoxide were used by early Most of the victims came from disadvantaged groups such as prostitutes, the poor, the homeless, and criminals.

Germany's war in the East was based on Hitler's long-standing view that Jews were the great enemy of the German people and that Lebensraum was needed for Germany's expansion.

The Generalplan Ost "General Plan for the East" called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered.

In addition to eliminating Jews, the Nazis planned to reduce the population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through starvation in an action called the Hunger Plan.

Food supplies would be diverted to the German army and German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return to forest or resettled by German colonists.

Around the time of the failed offensive against Moscow in December , Hitler resolved that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately.

Some would be worked to death and the rest would be killed in the implementation of the Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Initially the victims were killed by Einsatzgruppen firing squads, then by stationary gas chambers or by gas vans , but these methods proved impractical for an operation of this scale.

The Allies received information about the murders from the Polish government-in-exile and Polish leadership in Warsaw, based mostly on intelligence from the Polish underground.

Evans states that most German citizens disapproved of the genocide. Poles were viewed by Nazis as subhuman non-Aryans, and during the German occupation of Poland 2.

The German authorities engaged in a systematic effort to destroy Polish culture and national identity. During operation AB-Aktion , many university professors and members of the Polish intelligentsia were arrested, transported to concentration camps, or executed.

During the war, Poland lost an estimated 39 to 45 percent of its physicians and dentists, 26 to 57 percent of its lawyers, 15 to 30 percent of its teachers, 30 to 40 percent of its scientists and university professors and 18 to 28 percent of its clergy.

During the course of the war, the Nazis captured 5. Of these, an estimated 3. From onward, Soviet POWs were viewed as a source of forced labour, and received better treatment so they could work.

Antisemitic legislation passed in led to the removal of all Jewish teachers, professors and officials from the education system.

Frequent and often contradictory directives were issued by Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, Bernhard Rust of the Reichserziehungsministerium Ministry of Education , and various other agencies regarding content of lessons and acceptable textbooks for use in primary and secondary schools.

Detailed National Socialist indoctrination of future holders of elite military rank was undertaken at Order Castles. Primary and secondary education focused on racial biology, population policy, culture, geography, and especially physical fitness.

At universities, appointments to top posts were the subject of power struggles between the education ministry, the university boards, and the National Socialist German Students' League.

Women were a cornerstone of Nazi social policy and the Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it was the creation of Jewish intellectuals, instead advocating a patriarchal society in which the German woman would recognise that her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home".

Courses were offered on childrearing, sewing and cooking. Women were encouraged to leave the workforce, and the creation of large families by racially suitable women was promoted through a propaganda campaign.

Women received a bronze award—known as the Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter Cross of Honour of the German Mother —for giving birth to four children, silver for six and gold for eight or more.

Though the measures led to increases in the birth rate, the number of families having four or more children declined by five percent between and After the war started, slave labourers were extensively used.

The Nazi regime discouraged women from seeking higher education since Nazi leaders held conservative views about women and endorsed the idea that rational and theoretical work was alien to a woman's nature since they were considered inherently emotional and instinctive — as such, engaging in academics and careerism would only "divert them from motherhood".

The number of women enrolled in post-secondary schools dropped from , in to 51, in However, with the requirement that men be enlisted into the armed forces during the war, women comprised half of the enrolment in the post-secondary system by Women were expected to be strong, healthy and vital.

The BDM's activities focused on physical education, with activities such as running, long jumping, somersaulting, tightrope walking, marching and swimming.

The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct regarding sexual matters and was sympathetic to women who bore children out of wedlock.

Soldier's wives were frequently involved in extramarital relationships. Sex was sometimes used as a commodity to obtain better work from a foreign labourer.

With Hitler's approval, Himmler intended that the new society of the Nazi regime should destigmatise illegitimate births, particularly of children fathered by members of the SS, who were vetted for racial purity.

Existing laws banning abortion except for medical reasons were strictly enforced by the Nazi regime. The number of abortions declined from 35, per year at the start of the s to fewer than 2, per year at the end of the decade, though in a law was passed allowing abortions for eugenics reasons.

Nazi Germany had a strong anti-tobacco movement as pioneering research by Franz H. Müller in demonstrated a causal link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.

Government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients.

In , Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients and in their right to practice medicine was removed entirely. Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific , were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in Josef Mengele , camp doctor at Auschwitz.

Nazi society had elements supportive of animal rights and many people were fond of zoos and wildlife. In , the Nazis enacted a stringent animal-protection law that affected what was allowed for medical research.

The Reich Forestry Office under Göring enforced regulations that required foresters to plant a wide variety of trees to ensure suitable habitat for wildlife and a new Reich Animal Protection Act became law in When the Nazis seized power in , roughly 67 percent of the population of Germany was Protestant , 33 percent was Roman Catholic , while Jews made up less than 1 percent.

Under the Gleichschaltung process, Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant state churches , [] with the ultimate goal of eradication of the churches in Germany.

Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.

Pope Pius XI had the " Mit brennender Sorge " "With Burning Concern" encyclical smuggled into Germany for Passion Sunday and read from every pulpit as it denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.

Enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply and by all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities.

He planned the "extermination of the foreign Christian faiths imported into Germany", and for the Bible and Christian cross to be replaced in all churches, cathedrals, and chapels with copies of Mein Kampf and the swastika.

While no unified resistance movement opposing the Nazi regime existed, acts of defiance such as sabotage and labour slowdowns took place, as well as attempts to overthrow the regime or assassinate Hitler.

These networks achieved little beyond fomenting unrest and initiating short-lived strikes. The group was detected by the Gestapo and more than 50 members were tried and executed in The two groups saw themselves as potential rival parties in post-war Germany, and for the most part did not co-ordinate their activities.

While civilian efforts had an impact on public opinion, the army was the only organisation with the capacity to overthrow the government.

They believed Britain would go to war over Hitler's planned invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Germany would lose.

The plan was to overthrow Hitler or possibly assassinate him. The planned coup was cancelled after the signing of the Munich Agreement in September Several more attempts followed before the failed 20 July plot, which was at least partly motivated by the increasing prospect of a German defeat in the war.

Evans , The Coming of the Third Reich The regime promoted the concept of Volksgemeinschaft , a national German ethnic community. The goal was to build a classless society based on racial purity and the perceived need to prepare for warfare, conquest and a struggle against Marxism.

As well as taking control of tens of thousands of privately run recreational clubs, it offered highly regimented holidays and entertainment such as cruises, vacation destinations and concerts.

Sub-chambers were set up to control aspects of cultural life such as film, radio, newspapers, fine arts, music, theatre and literature.

Members of these professions were required to join their respective organisation. Jews and people considered politically unreliable were prevented from working in the arts, and many emigrated.

Books and scripts had to be approved by the Propaganda Ministry prior to publication. Standards deteriorated as the regime sought to use cultural outlets exclusively as propaganda media.

Radio became popular in Germany during the s; over 70 percent of households owned a receiver by , more than any other country.

By July , radio station staffs were purged of leftists and others deemed undesirable. Newspapers, like other media, were controlled by the state; the Reich Press Chamber shut down or bought newspapers and publishing houses.

By , over two thirds of the newspapers and magazines were directly owned by the Propaganda Ministry. Under Goebbels, the Propaganda Ministry issued two dozen directives every week on exactly what news should be published and what angles to use; the typical newspaper followed the directives closely, especially regarding what to omit.

Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile. Goebbels recommended that the remaining authors concentrate on books themed on Germanic myths and the concept of blood and soil.

By the end of , over a thousand books—most of them by Jewish authors or featuring Jewish characters—had been banned by the Nazi regime.

Pacifist works, and literature espousing liberal, democratic values were targeted for destruction, as well as any writings supporting the Weimar Republic or those written by Jewish authors.

Hitler took a personal interest in architecture and worked closely with state architects Paul Troost and Albert Speer to create public buildings in a neoclassical style based on Roman architecture.

Neither structure was built. Hitler's belief that abstract , Dadaist , expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy.

The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors. Movies were popular in Germany in the s and s, with admissions of over a billion people in , and Exports of German films plummeted, as their antisemitic content made them impossible to show in other countries.

The two largest film companies, Universum Film AG and Tobis , were purchased by the Propaganda Ministry, which by was producing most German films.

The productions were not always overtly propagandistic, but generally had a political subtext and followed party lines regarding themes and content.

Leni Riefenstahl 's Triumph of the Will —documenting the Nuremberg Rally—and Olympia —covering the Summer Olympics —pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that influenced later films.

New techniques such as telephoto lenses and cameras mounted on tracks were employed. Both films remain controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of National Socialist ideals.

The Allied powers organised war crimes trials, beginning with the Nuremberg trials , held from November to October , of 23 top Nazi officials.

They were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity —in violation of international laws governing warfare.

The result was convictions of 1, people; of these were sentenced to death and to life in prison, with the remainder receiving lesser sentences.

About 65 percent of the death sentences were carried out. The political programme espoused by Hitler and the NSDAP brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Europe.

Germany itself suffered wholesale destruction, characterised as Stunde Null Zero Hour. While Evans remarks that the era "exerts an almost universal appeal because its murderous racism stands as a warning to the whole of humanity", [] young neo-Nazis enjoy the shock value the use Nazi symbols or slogans provides.

The process of denazification, which was initiated by the Allies as a way to remove Nazi Party members was only partially successful, as the need for experts in such fields as medicine and engineering was too great.

However, expression of Nazi views was frowned upon, and those who expressed such views were frequently dismissed from their jobs. While virtually every family suffered losses during the war has a story to tell, Germans kept quiet about their experiences and felt a sense of communal guilt, even if they were not directly involved in war crimes.

The trial of Adolf Eichmann in and the broadcast of the television miniseries Holocaust in brought the process of Vergangenheitsbewältigung coping with the past to the forefront for many Germans.

Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see Das Dritte Reich. Administrative divisions of Germany, January The German state from to , under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler.

Adolf Hitler's rise to power. Anschluss and German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Mass suicides in Nazi Germany.

Territorial evolution of Germany. Government of Nazi Germany. Law in Nazi Germany. Economy of Nazi Germany. Nazism and race , Racial policy of Nazi Germany , and Nazi eugenics.

Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany. Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war.

University education in Nazi Germany. Women in Nazi Germany. Animal welfare in Nazi Germany. Religion in Nazi Germany. German resistance to Nazism.

If the experience of the Third Reich teaches us anything, it is that a love of great music, great art and great literature does not provide people with any kind of moral or political immunization against violence, atrocity, or subservience to dictatorship.

List of authors banned in Nazi Germany. Nazi architecture and Art of the Third Reich. Tümmler , p. See Statistisches Jahrbuch It could not be expected that even for a brief period our Air Force could make up for our lack of naval supremacy.

Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz believed air superiority was not enough and admitted, "We possessed neither control of the air or the sea; nor were we in any position to gain it.

The figure of 2 to 2. The German Red Cross still maintains that the death toll from the expulsions is 2. Goebbel's propaganda campaigns carried out in the second half of and again in had failed to convert them".

Evans , p. Women in the Third Reich. Genocide of European Roma. The German Churches and the Nazi State. The Definitive Resource and Document Collection.

The Second World War. A Concise History of Nazi Germany: Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. Yearbook of European Studies.

Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Archived from the original PDF on 9 May Retrieved 12 May Journal of Social History. Bracher, Karl Dietrich Translated by Jean Steinberg.

The Origins of the Final Solution: Busse, Reinhard; Riesberg, Annette Retrieved 15 May Goebbels' Speech on Total War". Retrieved 3 March A History of Nazi Germany.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 24 April The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, — How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich.

Conway, John S The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, — National Socialist Cultural Policy. Retrieved 14 July American Journal of International Law.

Technology, Food Safety, and the Environment. The Economic History of the Twentieth Century. University of California at Berkeley.

Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 21 April Dönitz, Karl []. Ten Years and Twenty Days. Inventing a Pathology of Catastrophe for Holocaust Survival: Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry series.

University Press of New England. Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte in German. German Churches and the Holocaust. Das Bundesarchiv in German.

Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 19 May The Coming of the Third Reich. The Third Reich in Power.

The Third Reich at War. British Historians and the European Continent. Cambridge; New York, NY: Farago, Ladislas []. International Propaganda and Communications.

The German Resistance to Hitler — Fleming, Michael Spring A Further Challenge to the 'Elusiveness' Narrative". Holocaust and Genocide Studies.

Atlas of Nazi Germany: London; New York, NY: Nazi Germany and the Jews, — Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Planungs- und Vernichtungspolitik by Mechtild Rössler; Sabine Schleiermacher".

Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 25 September Germany West Presse- und Informationsamt With an introduction by Konrad Adenauer in German.

A History of the German Resistance to Hitler. Theory and Practice of Leadership. How the Red Army Stopped Hitler.

University Press of Kansas. Suicide in Nazi Germany. Oxford; New York, NY: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.

A Social History of Nazi Germany — Holt Rinehart and Winston. Aspekte und Erkenntnisse zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissenschaft in German.

Hahn, Hans Henning; Hahnova, Eva Country diary Country diary: Angela Merkel's rightwing rival Horst Seehofer could quit.

Far-right German party expels member for photo of Hitler wine labels. The worrying rise of the far right across Europe and America. Europe must restructure if it is to defeat nationalism, says Lyn Atterbury , while Su Coates takes no pleasure in watching history repeat itself.

Former SS guard, 94, weeps at testimony of Holocaust survivors. German spy chief loses out on government role after firebrand speech.

Young CDU members are excited by a fresh start in Germany once the only leader they have known stands down. German leader retires with reputation both for calm reliability and lack of vision.

Far-right German politician pulls out of Oxford Union event.

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